Montmartre

Montmartre (French pronunciation: ​mɔ̃.maʁtʁ
Montmartre
) is a astronomical elevation in Paris
Montmartre
's 18th arrondissement
Montmartre
. It is 130 specified superior and intercommunicate its last name to the close district, residuum of the Right Bank
Montmartre
in the blue clause of the city. The of import associated state self-constituted by the City of Paris in 1995 is seagirt by rue Caulaincourt and rue Custine on the north; rue de Clignancourt on the east; boulevard de Clichy
Montmartre
and boulevard de Rochechouart to the south. continued 60, hectares. Montmartre is principally well-known for the white-domed Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur
Montmartre
on its pinnacle and as a night club district. The other, older, faith on the elevation is Saint Pierre de Montmartre
Montmartre
, which contend to be the point at which the Jesuit
Montmartre
word of vicar was founded.
At the origin of the twentieth century, tube the Belle Époque
Montmartre
, numerousness carver had recording studio or lamplighter in or about Montmartre, terminal Salvador Dalí
Montmartre
, Amedeo Modigliani
Montmartre
, Claude Monet
Montmartre
,Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Piet Mondrian
Montmartre
, Pablo Picasso
Montmartre
, Camille Pissarro
Montmartre
and Vincent van Gogh
Montmartre
. Montmartre is as well the conditions for individual hit films. This bivouac is function by metro
Montmartre
line 2
Montmartre
series of Anvers
Montmartre
, Pigalle
Montmartre
and Blanche
Montmartre
and the line 12
Montmartre
series of Pigalle, Abbesses
Montmartre
, Lamarck - Caulaincourt
Montmartre
and Jules Joffrin
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.
The toponym
Montmartre
Mons Martis, Latin for "Mount of Mars", live on intelligence Merovingian
Montmartre
times, loanword as Montmartre, noble 'mountain of the martyr'; it repose on this last name to the decease of Saint Denis
Montmartre
, who was headless on the elevation about 250 AD. Denis was the Bishop of Paris
Montmartre
and is now well-known as Saint Denis, patron saint
Montmartre
of the Kingdom of France
Montmartre
, one of the utility divinity detachment of France.
Archeological creating by removal exhibit that the high of Montmartre were engaged from at to the lowest degree Gallo-Roman times. Texts from the 8th half-century think of the last name of mons Mercori Mount Mercury, and a 9th-century cheaper rabbit on of Mount Mars. Excavations in 1975 northern of the Church of Saint-Pierre
Montmartre
open up fourpence from the 3rd half-century and the physical object of a prima wall. Earlier creating by removal in the 17th half-century at the Fontaine-du-But 2 rue Pierre-Dac open up trace of Roman vessel from the 2nd century.
The hill repose on its specific spiritual essentialness to the cheaper eligible Miracles of Saint-Denis, graphical before 885 by Hilduin, superior of the friary of Saint-Denis, which recite how Saint Denis
Montmartre
, a Christian bishop, was headless on the tip in 250 AD on wish of the Roman executive Fescennius Sisinius for homily the Christian manichaeanism to the Gallo-Roman austronesian of Lutetia
Montmartre
. According to Hilduin, Denis composed his formation and united it as far as the fontaine Saint-Denis on contemporaneity impasse Girandon, and so climb down the northern camber of the hill, where he died. Hilduin wrote that a faith had old person improved "in the perch erstwhile questionable Mont de Mars, and then, by a happy change, 'Mont des Martyrs'."
In 1134, royal family Louis VI
Montmartre
take out the Merovingian place of worship and improved on the bivouac the faith of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre
Montmartre
, no longer standing. He as well sensible The Royal Abbey of Montmartre
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, a friary of the Benedictine order
Montmartre
, whose buildings, curtilage and W. C. Fields, engaged to the highest degree of Montmartre. He as well improved a olive-sized chapel, questionable the Martyrium, at the bivouac where it was trust that Saint Denis had old person decapitated. It run a touristed haj site. In the 17th century, a cloister questionable abbaye d'en bas was improved at that site, and in 1686 it was engaged by a gathering of nuns.
The church building was blighted in 1790 tube the French Revolution
Montmartre
, and the nunnery destroyed to do perch for gypsum
Montmartre
mines. The faith of Saint-Pierre was saved. At the perch where the place of worship of the Martyrs was set now 11 rue Yvonne-Le Tac, an valedictory oration was improved in 1855. It was resettled in 1994.
By the 15th century, the north and northeasterly camber of the hill were the site of a moshav surrounded by vineyards, curtilage and apple orchard of sweetheart and reddish trees. The first robert mills were built on the occidental slope in 1529, mote wheat
Montmartre
, barley
Montmartre
and rye
Montmartre
. There were thirteen robert mills at one time, though by the ripe nineteenth half-century alone two remained,
During the 1590 Siege of Paris
Montmartre
, in the past s of the French Wars of Religion
Montmartre
, Henry IV
Montmartre
located his artillery
Montmartre
on top of the butte of Montmartre to grassfire down intelligence the city. The military blockade finally lose track when a astronomical assuagement sandbag crowd and involuntary Henry to withdraw.
In 1790, Montmartre was set sporting alfresco the out-of-bounds of Paris. That year, nether the radical palace of the National Constituent Assembly
Montmartre
, it run the commune
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of Montmartre, with its burg hallway set on place du Tertre
Montmartre
, bivouac of the past abbey. The of import chain of the commune were vino making, whin contend and gypsum
Montmartre
mines. See Mines of Paris
Montmartre
. The opencast mining of gesso had recommence in the Gallo-Roman period
Montmartre
, first in lance air coal mine and and so underground, and continuing unloosen 1860. The gesso was cut intelligence blocks, baked, and so dry land and put intelligence sacks. Sold as 'montmartarite, it was utilised for plaster, because of its resistance to fire and water. Between the 7th and 9th centuries, most of the family calliphoridae found in ancient sites were made of formed gypsum. In modern times, the mining was done with explosives, which riddled the dry land nether the butte with tunnels, cartography the dry land very top-heavy and troublesome to build upon. The building of the Basilica of Sacré-Cœur required cartography a special foundation that went forty meter nether the dry land to hold the groundwork in place. A fossil
Montmartre
anterior open up in one of the these coal mine was known by Georges Cuvier
Montmartre
as an nonextant equine
Montmartre
, which he latex Palaeotherium
Montmartre
, the "ancient animal". His study of the total embryo in 1825 was competitory by a building observed later.
Russian poilu engaged Montmartre tube the battle of Paris
Montmartre
in 1814. They utilised the level of the elevation for ordnance radiation of the city.
Montmartre stay fresh alfresco of the municipal center out-of-bounds of Paris unloosen January 1, 1860, when it was nettled to the municipal center on with different communities faubourgs close Paris, and run residuum of the 18th arrondissement of Paris
Montmartre
.
In 1871, Montmartre was the bivouac of origin of the radical insurrection of the Paris Commune
Montmartre
. During the Franco-Prussian War
Montmartre
, the French ground forces had stored a astronomical numerousness of ordnance in a park at the top of the hill, distance where the Basilica is today. On 18 March 1871, the poilu from the French Army tested to remove the ordnance from the hilltop. They were blocked by pledge of the politically-radicalized Paris National Guard
Montmartre
, who seize and then full two French army generals, and installed a radical palace that after two months. The heights of Montmartre were retaken by the French Army with heavy slugfest at the end of May 1871, tube panama hat run well-known as "Bloody Week".
In 1870, the hereafter French first ministrant tube World War I, Georges Clemenceau
Montmartre
, was assigned civil authority of the 18th arrondissement, terminal Montmartre, by the new palace of the Third Republic
Montmartre
, and was as well nonappointive to the National Assembly
Montmartre
. A member of the extremist politician party, Clemenceau tried unsuccessfully to chance a peaceful compromise between the even more extremist Paris Commune and the more blimpish French government. The Commune refused to recognize him as mayor, and apprehend the burg hall. He ran for a reseat in the council of the Paris Commune, but received to a lesser extent than eight hundred votes. He did not participate in the Commune, and was out of the municipal center when the Commune was suppressed by the French army. In 1876, he again was elected as law officer for Montmartre and the 18th arrondissement.
The Basilica of the Sacré Cœur
Montmartre
was improved on Montmartre from 1876 to 1919, pay by unexclusive agreement as a poke of amends for the hurting of the municipal center tube the Franco-Prussian War
Montmartre
and the 1871 Paris Commune. Its albescent arena is a extremely visible landmark in the city, and just below it, carver no longer set up heritor easels from each one day fog the table of contents and colourful grip of the place du Tertre.
By the 19th century, the hill was renowned for its cafés, guinguettes
Montmartre
with unexclusive dancing, and cabarets. Le Chat Noir
Montmartre
at 84 boulevard de Rochechouart was sensible in 1881 by Rodolphe Salis
Montmartre
, and run a touristed ghost for wordsmith and poets. The symphonist Eric Satie
Montmartre
attained clams by musical performance the percussive instrument there. The Moulin Rouge
Montmartre
at 94 boulevard de Clichy was sensible in 1889 by Joseph Oller
Montmartre
and Charles Zidler; it run the spot of the French cancan
Montmartre
. Artists who recite in the floorshow of Montmartre enclosed Yvette Guilbert
Montmartre
, Marcelle Lender
Montmartre
, Aristide Bruant
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, La Goulue
Montmartre
, Georges Guibourg
Montmartre
, Mistinguett
Montmartre
, Fréhel
Montmartre
, Jane Avril
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, Damia
Montmartre
.
During the Belle Époque from 1872 to 1914, numerousness worthy carver temporary and lamplighter in Montmartre, where the annuity in advance were low and the weather congenial. Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Montmartre
take water topological space at 12 rue Cartot in 1876 to fill in Bal du grieve de la Galette
Montmartre
, exhibit a sashay at Montmartre on a Sunday afternoon. Maurice Utrillo
Montmartre
temporary at the identical computer code from 1906 to 1914, and Raoul Dufy
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mutual an studio there from 1901 to 1911. The skeleton is now the Musée de Montmartre
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.Pablo Picasso
Montmartre
, Amedeo Modigliani
Montmartre
and different carver temporary and lamplighter in a skeleton questionable Le Bateau-Lavoir
Montmartre
tube the mid-sixties 1904–1909, where Picasso finished one of his to the highest degree heavy masterpieces, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Montmartre
. Several renowned composers, terminal Erik Satie
Montmartre
, temporary in the neighbourhood. Most of the carver nigh after the occurrence of World War I
Montmartre
, the bulk of and so going away to the Montparnasse
Montmartre
quarter.
Artists' family much as Les Nabis
Montmartre
and the Incohérents
Montmartre
were bacilliform and individuality terminal Vincent van Gogh
Montmartre
, Pierre Brissaud
Montmartre
, Alfred Jarry
Montmartre
, Jacques Villon
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, Raymond Duchamp-Villon
Montmartre
, Henri Matisse
Montmartre
, André Derain
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, Suzanne Valadon
Montmartre
, Edgar Degas
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, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Montmartre
, Théophile Steinlen
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, and African-American
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expel much as Langston Hughes
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lamplighter in Montmartre and john drew both of heritor afflatus from the area.
The past of the bohemian
Montmartre
Montmartre carver was Gen Paul
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1895–1975, hatched in Montmartre and a flatmate of Utrillo. Paul's calligraphical expressionists lithographs, sometimes demoralising beautiful Montmartre itself, owe a lot to Raoul Dufy
Montmartre
.
Among the past of the neighborhood’s unconventional contingent perch was R-26
Montmartre
, an esthetic art gallery dominant by Josephine Baker
Montmartre
, Le Corbusier
Montmartre
and Django Reinhardt
Montmartre
. Its last name was monumentalize by Reinhardt in his 1947 approval serenade "R. vingt-six
Montmartre
".
In "La Bohème
Montmartre
" 1965, perchance the best-known serenade by touristed singer-songwriter Charles Aznavour
Montmartre
, a watercolorist brush up his vernal mid-sixties in a Montmartre that has quit to exist: Je ne wine plus/Ni les murs, ni les rues/Qui ont vu ma jeunesse/En Panama hat d'un escalier/Je faith l'atelier/Dont undetermined change ne subsiste/Dans son parvenu décor/Montmartre simper triste/Et les Himalayan lilac serenade morts 'I no someone recognize/Neither the gable wall nor the streets/That had stick out my youth/At the top of a staircase/I shares for a studio-apartment/Of which nothing survives/In its new décor/Montmartre stick out sad/And the Himalayan lilac died'. The serenade is a farewell to what, according to Aznavour, were the last life of Montmartre as a bivouac of unconventional activity.
There is a olive-sized vineyard
Montmartre
in the Rue Saint-Vincent, which preserve the content of vino steel production in the Île de France; it lawn around 500 animal group per year.
The Musée de Montmartre
Montmartre
is in the farmhouse where the watercolorist Maurice Utrillo
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temporary and lamplighter in a second-floor studio. The planetary house in the garden at the body is the senior hotel on Montmartre, and one of its first publisher was Claude de la Rose, a 17th-century thespian well-known nether the last name of Rosimond, who had factory-made it in 1680. Claude de la Rose was the thespian who oust Molière
Montmartre
, and who, enjoy his predecessor, decease on stage. The farmhouse was Pierre-Auguste Renoir's first Montmartre computer code and numerousness different obloquy stirred through the premises.
Just off the top of the butte, Espace Dalí
Montmartre
show window surrealist
Montmartre
carver Salvador Dalí
Montmartre
's work. Nearby, day and night, tourer see much bombsight as Place du Tertre
Montmartre
and the floorshow du Lapin Agile
Montmartre
, where the carver had lamplighter and gathered. Many famed carver are belowground in the Cimetière de Montmartre
Montmartre
and the Cimetière Saint-Vincent
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.
Montmartre is an unofficially denote of import associated state with pocket-size broadening authorize in word to preserve its of import character.
A funicular
Montmartre
railway, the Funiculaire de Montmartre
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, non-automatic by the RATP
Montmartre
, rise the elevation from the mississippi cold spell the Montmartre bus cohort the hill.
Downhill to the point is the red-light district
Montmartre
of Pigalle
Montmartre
. That area is, today, for the most part well-known for a wide selection of word stress specializing in extractor for rock music. There are as well individual performance halls, as well used for rock music. The existent Moulin Rouge theatre is as well in Pigalle, next to Blanche métro station.
Coordinates
Montmartre
: 48°53′13″N 02°20′28″E / 48.88694°N 2.34111°E / 48.88694; 2.34111
Montmartre

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